Classification of occupations

For the purposes of preventing occupational accidents and implementing and developing the Workers’ Compensation Act, TVK maintains a register of claim events and statutory insurance policies, policyholders and paid claims (register of occupational accidents and occupational diseases). In the register, the insured employees’ line of work is classified according to Statistics Finland’s classification of occupations TK 2010. Occupation refers to work which a person performs in an employment relationship as an employee or in self-employment. 

The current classification of occupations was introduced between 2015-2016. As the current and previous classifications of occupations differ in their structure, the revised classification results in an interruption in the occupation-specific time series in occupational accident and occupational disease statistics.

Similarly, Statistics Finland’s classification of occupations TK 2010 is used when reporting wages and salaries to the Incomes Register.
Classification of occupations TK2010, in Finnish

More information on the classification of occupations by Statistics Finland (TK2010):
Full classification of occupations 2010 by Statistics Finland, in Finnish

LuokitusEkspertti by Statistics Finland, in Finnish

Risk classification

The Workers' Compensation Center maintains a risk classification system describing accident and occupational disease risks, based on the data concerning the industry or work provided in the occupational accident and disease register. (Workers’ Compensation Act section 17)

TVK’s risk classification based on Statistics Finland’s classification of occupations TK 2010, in Finnish

TVK has also introduced a three-tier risk classification system for occupational classes to assist the selection of an occupational class in the Incomes Register, in situations where the insured works equal hours in two occupations. The risk categories are low risk, medium risk and high risk.

Risk classification of occupations in the Incomes Register

Principal categories of occupations (TK 2010)

1= Managers
2= Professionals
3= Technicians and associate professionals
4= Clerical support workers
5= Service and sales workers
6= Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers
7= Craft and related trades workers
8= Plant and machine operators and assemblers
9= Elementary occupations
0= Armed forces

ESAW variables

Statistics by TVK use variables defined in the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) to describe the circumstances of occurrence of occupational accidents. Classification under the ESAW system began in Finland in 2003.

There are eight ESAW variables that describe the causes and circumstances of accidents at work:

  • working process,
  • specific physical activity,
  • deviation,
  • contact and mode of injury,
  • material agent associated with the mode of injury,
  • workstation (until 2015),
  • working environment (from 2016),
  • type of injury, and
  • part of body injured.

Of this classification of variables, the version used in Finland is abridged in certain respects. The abridged classification is described in the joint publication Classification of Accidents at Work (Työtapaturmien luokittelu) by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and TVK.

The variables “circumstances of the claim event”, “claim event according to the claim decision” and “mental shock reaction” are not based on ESAW methodology but nationally collected statistics.

Working process codes

10= Production, manufacturing, processing, storing
20= Excavation, Construction, Repair, Demolition
30= Agricultural type work, forestry, horticulture, fish farming, work with live animals
40= Service provided to enterprise and/or to the general public; intellectual activity
50= Other work related to tasks coded under 10, 20, 30 and 40
60= Movement, sport, artistic activity
99= Other Working Processes not listed in the above classification
00= No information
XX= Unknown Working Process

Specific Physical Activity codes
10= Operating machine (starting, feeding, monitoring the machine, etc.)
20= Working with hand-held tools (drill, hammer, etc.)
30= Driving/being on board a means of transport or handling equipment
40= Handling of objects (grasping, opening, closing, tying, throwing, placing, pouring, etc.)
50= Carrying by hand (lifting, lowering, pulling, pushing, carrying, etc.)
60= Movement (including movements on the spot, such as getting dressed or washing)
70= Presence at the workstation (sitting, standing, conversing, display monitor and control room work, etc.)
99= Other Specific Physical Activities not listed
00= No information
XX= Unknown Physical Activity

Deviation codes
10= Deviation due to electrical problems, explosion, fire
20= Deviation by overflow, overturn, leak, flow, vaporisation, emission
30= Breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, collapse of Material Agent (from below or above the person)
40= Loss of control (total or partial) of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, object, animal
50= Slipping - Stumbling and falling - Fall of persons
60= Body movement without any physical stress - walking on a sharp object, being caught on, uncoordinated movements, kneeling on, sitting on
70= Body movement under or with physical stress (lifting, pushing, twisting, slipping without falling, etc.)
80= Shock, fright, violence (by a person or animal), aggression, threat, presence (such as bypassing a safeguard)
99= Other Deviations not listed above in this classification
00= No information
XX= Unknown Deviation

Contact - Mode of injury codes
10= Contact with electrical voltage, temperature, hazardous substances
20= Loss of oxygen (drowned, buried, enveloped, suffocating gases and vapours)
30= Horizontal or vertical impact with or against a stationary object (fall, crash, etc.)
40= Struck by object in motion, collision with (including pressurised liquids and gases)
50= Contact with sharp, pointed, rough, coarse Material Agent
60= Trapped, crushed, etc.
70= Physical or mental stress (including due to noise or radiation)
80= Bite, kick, etc. (animal or human)
99= Other contacts – Modes of injury not listed in this classification
00= No information
XX= Unknown mode of injury

Material agent codes
1100= Accessways, surfaces, ground, doors, walls, windows, structures at ground level
1200= Buildings, structures, surfaces - above ground level
1300= Buildings, structures, surfaces - below ground level
2100= Pipes, hoses, valves, joints, ducts
2200= Motors, systems for energy transmission, conversion and storage
2300= Hand tools, not powered
2400= Hand-held or hand-guided mechanical tools
2500= Hand tools (without specification of power source)
2600= Machines and equipment – portable or mobile
2700= Machines and equipment – fixed
2800= Conveying, transport and storage systems
3100= Land vehicles
3200= Other transport vehicles
4100= Materials, objects, products, debris, machine or vehicle components (including nails, screws, rolls, coils, loads, etc.)
4200= Chemical, explosive, radioactive, biological substances, liquids
4300= Safety equipment and devices, protective devices
4400= Office equipment, personal items, sports equipment, domestic appliances
5100= Humans, animals, plants
5200= Bulk waste
5300= Noise, pressure, fire, light arcs, snow, ice stretches of water, other physical phenomena and natural elements
9999= Other material agents not listed in this classification
0000= No data on immediate material agent
XXXX= Unknown material agent

Type of injury codes
010= Wounds and superficial injuries
020= Bone fractures
030= Dislocations, sprains and sprains
040= Traumatic amputations (Loss of body parts)
050= Concussions and internal injuries, contusion injuries
060= Burns, scalds and frostbites
070= Poisoning and infections
080= Drownings and asphyxiations
090= Effects of sound and vibration
100= Effects of temperature extremes, light and radiation
110= Shocks
120= Multiple injuries of equal severity
999= Other specified injuries not included under other headings
000= No data on type of injury
XXX= Unknown injury

Codes describing the part of body injured
10= Head
20= Neck
30= Back
40= Torso and organs
50= Upper extremities
60= Lower extremities
70= Whole body and multiple sites
99= Other parts of body not listed above
00= No data on injured part of body
XX= Injured part of body is unknown

Working environment codes
11= Production area, factory, workshop
12= Maintenance area, repair workshop
13= Area used principally for storage, loading and unloading
19= Other Industrial Site type working environment not listed above
21 Construction site – building being constructed
22 Construction site – building being demolished, repaired or maintained
23= Opencast quarry, opencast mine, excavation, trench (including opencast mines and working quarries)
29= Other Construction site type Working Environments not listed above
31= Breeding area
32= Farming area – ground crop
33= Farming area – tree or bush crop
34= Forestry zone
39= Other Primary production type Working Environments not listed above
41= Office, meeting room, library, etc.
42= Teaching establishment, school, secondary school, college, university, crèche, day nursery
43= Small or large sales area (including street commerce)
44= Restaurant, recreational area, temporary accommodation (including museums, auditoriums, stadiums, fairs, etc.)
50= Health establishment - Not specified
60= Public area - Not specified (incl. sports areas)
70= In the home - Not specified
99= Other working environment not listed in this classification
00= No data

Variables in the Workers’ Compensation Act

Codes describing the circumstances of the claim event
11 = At work (section 21, excl. during travel and work performed at home or in an unspecified place)
12 = During travel related to a work assignment (section 21)
20 = Within the location of the working area (section 22)
31 = During travel between home and the workplace (section 23(1))
32 = During a meal or recreational break (section 23(2))
41 = In work-related training (section 24(1))
42 = In work-related recreation (section 24(2))
43 = In activities to maintain ability to work (section 24(3))
44 = In occupational healthcare (accident at work/occupational disease, section 24(4))
45 = In occupational healthcare (other than accident at work/occupational disease, section 24(5))
46 = During exercise (section 24(6))
47 = During travel to/from activities listed in codes 41 to 46 (section 24(7))
48 = Accommodation in exceptionally hazardous conditions (section 24(8)) 60 = At home and in the course of work performed in an unspecified place (sections 21, 25)
90 = Outside work

Codes describing the claim event according to the claim decision

Claim events considered as accidents:

10 = Accident
20 = Other injuries and illnesses considered to have been caused by an accident (section 18)
31 = Assault, work-related (section 34(1))
32 = Assault, not related to work or private life (section 34(3))
40 = Aggravation of other injury or illness (section 19)
50 = Pain induced by work-related postures (section 33)

Confirmed or suspected occupational diseases:

81 = Occupational diseases (section 26, excl. sections 28 and 29)
82 = Tendinitis in the upper extremities (section 28, excl. section 29)
83 = Carpal tunnel syndrome (section 29)
84 = Aggravation of other injury or illness (section 30)

Codes describing mental shock reactions

1 = Claim event involves a coverable mental shock reaction (section 35)
2 = Claim event does not involve a mental shock reaction covered under section 35

Classification of industries

The industry classification used is the Standard Industrial Classification by Statistics Finland (TOL 2008). Claims by employees of municipalities and joint municipal authorities are grouped into a separate top-level industry “Local government”, which is not a category used by Statistics Finland.

Principal categories of industries
A= Agriculture, forestry and fishing
B= Mining and quarrying
C= Manufacturing
D= Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
E= Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
F= Construction
G= Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
H= Transportation and storage
I= Accommodation and food service activities
J= Information and communication
K= Financial and insurance activities
L= Real estate activities
M= Professional, scientific and technical activities
N= Administrative and support service activities
O= Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
P= Education
Q= Human health and social work activities
R= Arts, entertainment and recreation
S= Other service activities
T= Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own use
U= Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies
Z= Local government
X= Industry unknown

Classification of the mode of movement

The statistics classify modes of movement in accordance with the statistical guidelines for statutory accident insurance. The classification is made only for commuting accidents.

Codes used in the tables

1= On foot (including walking a bicycle, stepping out of a vehicle, skiing, etc.)
2= By bicycle
3= By moped
4= By motorcycle, including light motorcycle
5= By passenger car
6= By bus, lorry, train or tram
7= Other mode of movement (tractor, horse-drawn carriage, sleigh, ship, boat, etc.)
9= Other
X= Unknown mode of movement

Cause of accident

The statistics classify the causes of accidents in accordance with the statistical guidelines for statutory accident insurance. The classification is made only for commuting accidents.

1= Falling over, slipping, tripping (including when a passenger falls inside or out of a vehicle) and strain injuries without falling
2= Stepping on objects
3= Vehicle running off the road or overturning, sliding off the road or rails
4= Collision with a vehicle
5= Collision with a bicycle, moped, motorcycle or light motorcycle
6= Collision with a train, tram or other railway vehicle
7= Violence
9= Other

Region codes
1= Uusimaa
2= Southwest Finland
4= Satakunta
5= Tavastia Proper
6= Pirkanmaa
7= Päijät-Häme
8= Kymenlaakso
9= South Karelia
10= South Savonia
11= North Savonia
12= North Karelia
13= Central Finland
14= South Ostrobothnia
15= Ostrobothnia
16= Central Ostrobothnia
17= North Ostrobothnia
18= Kainuu
19= Lapland
20= East Uusimaa (until the end of 2010)
21= Åland Islands
UU= Abroad
XX= Unknown

Severity rating

Severity is determined based on the duration of the employee’s disability. Duration is calculated by the number of calendar days, including Sundays and holidays, which the injured person is fully or partially disabled. The date of the injury is not counted when calculating the duration of disability.

Statistics App Tikku


Tikku is a statistics app by the Workers’ Compensation Center that contains data on employees’ occupational accidents and occupational diseases covered by insurance. Tikku is publicly available and does not require a username or password.

Tikku is not available on mobile devices. We recommend using a browser other than Internet Explorer.

Tikku is only in Finnish.

To Tikku